Along with its complementary, black, white is the most used color, well the word color is debatable here, because both of them have no hue. White symbolizes purity, chastity and simplicity. It is the color of light, blank canvas, paper and symbol of peace, we can find it in history dating back to 17 thousand years ago.
How the color is made: white is there, assuming you are using white paper, you don't need to make the color. Though there are white pigments and color pencils. In RGB color space it is made up of the full range of the three color components: red, green and blue. Yet in CMYK color space, it amounts to 0% of all components and the white is just empty paper.
History: the first use of white was around 17-18 thousand years ago found in cave drawing where chalk and limestone was used both as a background and figure colors. In ancient history we find that it was a symbol of purity and beginning in multiple cultures, in Egypt it was associated with goddess Isis, and it was fundamental to Greek as they see colors in terms of lightness and darkness with light resembling good. In christian Rome, it was used by popes to convey purity and trust. In modern times, we can find it predominantly in architecture as it is the simplest color to be used.
Color in Action
White when used in inner space, it appears infinite, giving that area even more space. It can be also used as a neutral as is literally fits any color. But in other cases it may appear dull and sad as it is associated with mourning. But nowadays it is associated with modernism and simplicity, making white predominant in electronic device industry, interior design and fashion.
Colors that go with White
White can be matched with any color, as it is often used as a base color. What really matters is paying attention to other colors' harmony as white is seamless with any of them.
White Color Palettes and Schemes
Any color palette will welcome white. In dark color palettes, it can be used as an accent; and it is used as a primary color in lighter palettes. It is often used as a background color to make other colors pop up.
Backgrounds and Seamless Patterns
Speaking of backgrounds, white is the most used color in backgrounds, agnostic to the medium. That's also true for patterns, nonetheless, white can be used as a primary color in black-based patterns. Such patterns or plain white can be used as wallpapers, but it is too boring to use it as a wallpaper unless in formal settings.